At Hurricane Island Outward Bound School a "watch," or group of students, may consist of individuals with many different learning styles and abilities. It is the instructor's joy and job to guide all of these to a successful completion of the course. My watch here had students from 16 to 56 and from soft urban couch potatoes to varsity athletes. Everyone finished with great success!
Isle Au Haut Lullaby or The Hay Ledge Song, by Gordon Bok and sung here by Mae Robertson, has no metaphorical connection with proposition 1. The Outward Bound expedition mentioned in the artifact started from Isle Au Haut and the song is simply lovely. I hope you enjoy it!

Teachers are Committed to Students and Their Learning

* Teachers are dedicated to making knowledge accessible to all students. They believe all students can learn.
* They treat students equitably. They recognize the individual differences that distinguish their students from one another and they take account for these differences in their practice.
* Teachers understand how students develop and learn.
* They respect the cultural and family differences students bring to their classroom.
* They are concerned with their students' self-concept, their motivation and the effects of learning on peer relationships.
* Teachers are also concerned with the development of character and civic responsibility.
Artifact #1: Outward Bound - Adventure Education as a Model for the Classroom
Rationale Reflection
The requirements of this proposition could be a checklist for any Outward Bound instructor. The artifact I have chosen to show my achievement of this standard is a paper that I wrote shortly after instructing my first two courses at the Hurricane Island Outward Bound School. An instructor is given a diverse set of students, often more so than in many classrooms. The differences in age and background, as well as culture and outlook of the students can be quite large. My job was to bring together these individuals and forge them into a unit that was mutually respectful and supportive, and that would help ensure the success of every member of the watch. All students had to learn the basic skill to complete the final expedition, which was a 4-night journey around the lower end of eastern Penobscot Bay in Maine. To be successful, an instructor needed to believe in the ability of all his students to succeed, had to respect each individual's differing set of skills and motivations. Respect for each other, for the environment, for the school and for the goals of the course had to be encouraged in each participant. An understanding of the local island culture and a sense of service to others was demonstrated with work projects in the local community. I had fallen into the job at Outward Bound because of a series of odd coincidences. I had been interested in adventure education as a required and integral part of any elementary or high school program, and working for Outward Bound rekindled the interest. Although family and work constraints seemed too onerous for me to pursue the subject, I still find that this paper says much about what I believe in as an educational philosophy. When I began my first educational master's program, in 1975, there was a lot of excitement about adventure education, which unfortunately soon fell victim to budgetary and philosophical concerns. Still many of the practices and attitudes common to HIOBS instructors would make interesting additions to any educator's toolbox. The team-building techniques and watch mentality could bring a class together in a way that could be strongly supportive for all class members. The artifact, a reflection on teaching in the light of adventure educational ideas, is a PDF file and can be downloaded HERE.
Artifact #2: Learning Motivation Theory Paper
This paper, a PDF file which may be downloaded HERE, was written for the course EDU 615 Motivational Theory & Classroom Management. It is a discussion of the main cognitive theories of motivation. I have included this as an artifact, as it demonstrates my theoretical understanding of the subject. While the ability of a teacher to motivate his students cannot be shown more clearly than by his success in the classroom, and while many traditionally effective teachers may have instinctively grasped the essentials that spelled out in the theories, the modern instructor would do well to add a systematic knowledge of motivation theory to increase his effectiveness. By understanding the theories, he can refine his methods of motivation, based on the concepts expressed in those theories.

Until I took this course, my efforts to motivate my students were mainly instinctual. I relied on personal enthusiasm, praise, careful positive critique and empathy to get my students up and at 'em. I found the course gave me a deeper understanding about what it takes to keep people motivated, as well as a set of theoretical hooks to hang my techniques on. I have been able to categorize what I think a student's needs and motivations might be, and to craft a response to the individual. While I have been concerned with students as individuals in the past, the knowledge of theory has made my assessments of motivational needs more efficient and, I believe, more accurate. I have often found it true that I gain more mastery over skills that I have developed through trial and error if I go back and examine them in a more rigorous manner, such as by taking a course or reading a book on the subject. In this case, the course gave a theoretical backbone to my practice.

The assignment that this paper fulfilled included a requirement that we add a letter to the parents of our students explaining  motivational theory, which is included at the end of the paper.

Artifact #3: Action Research Paper
This paper, a PDF file which may be downloaded HERE, was written for the course EDU 690 Action Research. It is a study of the effects of short-term training in abacus visualization technique on the mental math ability of under-performing middle school math students. I chose to pursue this research as a way of providing a small group of students having problems in math with a different mental algorithm to help them improve their math performance. Although this effect has been demonstrated with long-term training, the actual study period in any case was too short for any significant change. Nonetheless, the technique proved useful for the participant who stayed with the training after the end of the study period.

While one method of instruction may be able to reach most students most students most of the time, there are always children who learn more readily when presented the course material in a different way, or who are able to demonstrate content mastery in a non-traditional way. It is vitally important for any teacher who believes in the concepts of multiple intelligences and differentiated instruction to identify the strengths of each individual in his class and to be flexible enough to develop a number of teaching styles and assessment methods to accommodate the non-traditional learners in his classroom. Although the reported results of the study were disappointing, because of the limited time of the training, the verbal responses of the students to the use of the abacus indicated an increased interest in performing math calculations when they could do so using the abacus. One student, with fairly severe ADHD, found the manipulative aspect of the abacus helped him to focus on the operations better than simply using pencil and paper.